2023 CEQ Annual Report


[1] National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Weather Service, Hartford-Bradley International Airport, Accessed January 4, 2024; w2.weather.gov/climate/xmacis.php?wfo=box.

[2] Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection (DEEP), BUILDING A LOW CARBON FUTURE FOR CONNECTICUT ACHIEVING A 45% GHG REDUCTION BY 2030; portal.ct.gov/-/media/DEEP/climatechange/publications/BuildingaLowCarbonFutureforCTGC3Recommendationspdf.pdf#page=20.

[3] DEEP, Bureau of Energy and Technology Policy, personal communication from M. Malmrose, March 28, 2024. 1990-2021 with a preliminary look at 2022 Connecticut Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory, April 2024; portal.ct.gov/-/media/deep/climatechange/1990-2021-ghg-inventory/deep_ghg_report_90-21_pre-22.pdf.

[4] EPA, Facility Level Information on Greenhouse Gases Tool, accessed October 10, 2023; ghgdata.epa.gov/ghgp/main.do. Includes power plants, petroleum and natural gas systems, chemicals, waste, metals, pulp and paper, and other emissions.

[5] EPA, Air Data: Air Quality Data Collected at Outdoor Monitors Across the US; www.epa.gov/outdoor-air-quality-data.

[6] DEEP, New Release, June 7, 2023, DEEP Forecasts Unhealthy Levels of PM2.5 Wednesday for the Entire State from Canadian Wildfire Smoke; portal.ct.gov/DEEP/News-Releases/News-Releases---2023/DEEP-Forecasts-Unhealthy-Levels-of-PM25-Wednesday-for-the-Entire-State-from-Canadian-Wildfire-Smoke

[7] DEEP, Notice of Intent to Revise the State Implementation Plan for Air Quality: 2015 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards, December 6, 2023; portal.ct.gov/DEEP/Public-Notices/Public-Notices-Proposed-Actions---Opportunity-for-Comment/Proposed-State-Implementation-Plan-SIP-Revisions/Notice-of-Intent-to-Revise-the-State-Implementation-Plan-for-Air-Quality-2015-Ozone-NAAQS.

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[11] DEEP, Annual Summary Information for Ozone; portal.ct.gov/deep/air/monitoring/annual-summary-information-for-ozone.

[12] DEEP, Source Contribution to Connecticut’s Ozone Problem; portal.ct.gov/deep/air/planning/ozone/source-contribution-to-connecticut-ozone.

[13] DEEP, Monthly Open Space Reports to the Finance, Revenue and Bonding Committee and the State Bond Commission, 2023 Open Space Reports; portal.ct.gov/DEEP/Open-Space/DEEP-Monthly-Open-Space-Reports.

[14] EPA, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2021, 2023 Chapter 6: Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (April 13, 2023, 430-D-23-001); www.epa.gov/system/files/documents/2023-04/US-GHG-Inventory-2023-Chapter-6-Land-Use-Land-Use-Change-and-Forestry.pdf#page=2.

[15] DEEP, Monthly Open Space Reports to the Finance, Revenue and Bonding Committee and the State Bond Commission, 2023 Open Space Reports; portal.ct.gov/DEEP/Open-Space/DEEP-Monthly-Open-Space-Reports.

[16] New York Department of Environmental Conservation, Immerse Yourself in a Forest for Better Health; www.dec.ny.gov/lands/90720.html#:~:text=We%20enjoy%20the%20beauty%20and,green%20spaces%20may%20improve%20health.

[17] United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Forests of Connecticut, 2021. Resource Update FS-370. Northern Research Station; www.fs.usda.gov/nrs/pubs/ru/ru_fs370.pdf.

[18] DEEP and the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Trends In Connecticut’s Forests: A Half-Century of Change, NE-INF-143-01; www.fs.usda.gov/ne/newtown_square/publications/brochures/pdfs/state_forests/ct_forest.pdf.

[19] DEEP, GC3 Final Report: Working & Natural Lands Working Group - Rivers Sub-Working Group, p. 5; portal.ct.gov/-/media/DEEP/climatechange/GC3/GC3-working-group-reports/GC3-WNLWG-Rivers-Final-Report-11-20-20.pdf.

[20 University of Connecticut (UConn), Center for Land Use Education and Research (CLEAR); clear.uconn.edu/projects/landscape/ct-forestfrag/ and clear.uconn.edu/projects/landscape/ct-stats/.

[21] DEEP, 2020 Connect Forest Action Plan; portal.ct.gov/-/media/DEEP/forestry/2020-Approved-CT-Forest-Action-Plan.pdf.

[22] USDA Forest Service. 2022. Forests of Connecticut, 2021. Connecticut's Forests 2021 Estimate Tables.

[23] DEEP, D. Danica and UConn, I. Zafetti, personal communication 3-12-2024.

[24] United State Census Bureau, County-level Urban and Rural information for the 2020 Census, (Updated September 2023) County-level 2020 Census Urban and Rural Information for the U.S., Puerto Rico, and Island Areas sorted by state and county FIPS codes, accessed March 18, 2024; www2.census.gov/geo/docs/reference/ua/2020_UA_COUNTY.xlsx.

[25] Nowak, David J; Greenfield, Eric J. 2018. US Urban Forest Statistics, Values, and Projections. Journal of Forestry. 116(2): 164-177.; www.fs.usda.gov/nrs/pubs/jrnl/2018/nrs_2018_Nowak_003.pdf.

[26] DEEP, General Urban Forestry Information; portal.ct.gov/DEEP/Forestry/Urban-Forestry/General-Urban-Forestry-Information.

[27] UConn CLEAR, CT Forest Fragmentation; clear.uconn.edu/projects/landscape/ct-forestfrag/.

[28] Connecticut Department of Agriculture (DoAg), Connecticut Farmland Preservation Programs Report, January 2024; personal communication from C. Weimar, January 4, 2024.

[29] DEEP, GC3 Final Report: Working & Natural Lands Working Group - Agriculture/Soils Working Subgroup; portal.ct.gov/-/media/DEEP/climatechange/GC3/GC3-working-group-reports/GC3_WNL_Ag_Soils_Final_Report_111320.pdf#page=5.

[30] United States Department of Agriculture, Census of Agriculture Historical Archive, Connecticut 1982; agcensus.library.cornell.edu/wp-content/uploads/1982-Connecticut-CHAPTER_1_State_Data-121-Table-01.pdf.

[31] Connecticut General Statutes (CGS) Sec. 22a-38 (15); www.cga.ct.gov/current/pub/chap_440.htm#sec_22a-38.

[32] DEEP, Final Report: Working and Natural Lands Working Group, Wetlands Subgroup, November 2020; portal.ct.gov/-/media/DEEP/climatechange/GC3/GC3-working-group-reports/GC3_WNL_Wetlands_Final_Report_111320.pdf#page=11.

[33] DEEP, 2022 Integrated Water Quality Report to Congress; portal.ct.gov/DEEP/Water/Water-Quality/Water-Quality-305b-Report-to-Congress.

[34] DEEP, CT Sewage Right-to-Know webpage and CT DEEP Performance Dashboard, accessed 4-5-2024; portal.ct.gov/deep/municipal-wastewater/ct-sewage-right-to-know. Frequently Asked Questions about Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs); portal.ct.gov/deep/municipal-wastewater/combined-sewer-overflows-frequently-asked-questions.

[35] DEEP; Long Island Sound Water Quality and Hypoxia Monitoring Program, personal communication from K. O’Brien-Clayton, November 29, 2023; portal.ct.gov/DEEP/Water/LIS-Monitoring/LIS-Water-Quality-Monitoring-Maps.

[36] Long Island Sound Study Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan, 2015; longislandsoundstudy.net/our-vision-and-plan/.

[37] DEEP, Nitrogen Control Program for Long Island Sound; personal communications from I. Raffa, March 17 and 24, 2023.

[38] DEEP, Nitrogen Control Program for Long Island Sound; The Long Island Sound TMDL Frequently Asked Questions; portal.ct.gov/-/media/DEEP/water/lis_water_quality/nitrogen_control_program/tmdlfaqpdf.pdf.

[39] DEEP; Long Island Sound Water Quality and Hypoxia Monitoring Program, personal communication from K. O’Brien-Clayton, January 17, 2024.

[40] National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Tides and Currents, Water Levels – 8467150 Bridgeport, accessed January 4, 2024; tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/waterlevels.html?id=8467150&units=standard&bdate=19671001&edate=20230101&timezone=GMT&datum=MSL&interval=m&action=data.

[41] NOAA, Tides and Currents, Relative Sea Level Trend 8467150 Bridgeport; tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/sltrends/sltrends_station.shtml?id=8467150.

[42] EPA, Beach Advisory and Closing On-line Notification, accessed January 30, 2024; watersgeo.epa.gov/beacon2/reports.html.

[43] Long Island Sound Study Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan, 2015; longislandsoundstudy.net/our-vision-and-plan/.

[44] DoAg, Bureau of Aquaculture, personal communication with M. Zuber, December 22, 2023; portal.ct.gov/DOAG/Aquaculture1/Aquaculture/Aquaculture-Home-Page.

[45] DEEP, 2022 Integrated Water Quality Report to Congress, p. 38; portal.ct.gov/-/media/DEEP/water/water_quality_management/305b/2022/IWQR-Final-2022.pdf#page=38.

[46] Long Island Sound Study Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan, 2015; longislandsoundstudy.net/our-vision-and-plan/.

[47 EPA, Drinking Water Performance and Results Report, Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) tool, GPRA Summary Report and GPRA Violation Report, accessed March 21, 2024; www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/drinking-water-performance-and-results-report.

[48] Department of Public Health (DPH), Freedom of Information Response received February 15, 2023 and DPH, Public Water Systems Lists; portal.ct.gov/DPH/Drinking-Water/DWS/Public-Water-System-Lists.

[49] DPH, Press Releases, Connecticut Department of Public Health Updates Drinking Water Action Level For Per And Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS), June 15, 2022; portal.ct.gov/DPH/Newsroom/Press-Releases---2022/PFAS-June-2022.

[50] United States Geological Survey (USGS), “Arsenic and Uranium Occurrence in Private Wells in Connecticut, 2013–18— A Spatially Weighted and Bedrock Geology Assessment”; Eliza L. Gross and Craig J. Brown, Open-File Report 2021–1111. Version 1.1, November 2020. pubs.usgs.gov/of/2021/1111/ofr20211111.pdf.

[51] EPA, FY2014 – FY2018 EPA Strategic Plan, Strategic Measures; www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/drinking-water-performance-and-results-report.

[52] NOAA, Annual commercial landing statistics, 1970-2022, accessed January 2024; www.fisheries.noaa.gov/national/sustainable-fisheries/commercial-fisheries-landings.

[53] Kisei R. Tanaka, Michael P. Torre et al., “An ensemble high-resolution projection of changes in the future habitat of American lobster and sea scallop in the Northeast US continental shelf”; April 27, 2020; doi.org/10.1111/ddi.13069.

[54] DEEP, Division of Marine Fisheries; personal communication from K. Gottschall February 22, 2024.

[55] DEEP, Wildlife Division; personal communication from L. Saucier, March 7, 2024.

[56] Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) Atlantic Coast Population Revised Recovery Plan, May 2, 1996, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), omnilearn.net/esacourse/pdfs/piping_plover_recovery_plan96.pdf.

[57] USFWS, “Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation”, March 2020, p. 138; ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc6378.pdf.

[58] USFWS, 2019 Atlantic Coast Piping Plover Abundance and Productivity Estimates; www.fws.gov/sites/default/files/documents/news-attached-files/2019-Update-Final.pdf.

[59] DEEP, Wildlife Division, Wildlife Diversity Program, and State and Tribal Wildlife Grants programs; personal communication from B. Hess, February 29, 2024.

[60] DEEP, CT Bald Eagles, 2022 Statewide Summary, Wildlife Division, Wildlife Diversity Program, and State and Tribal Wildlife Grants programs; personal communication from B. Hess, January 3, 2023.

[61] DEEP, Wildlife Division, Bald Eagle; portal.ct.gov/DEEP/Wildlife/Fact-Sheets/Bald-Eagle.

[62] The Connecticut Audubon Society, Osprey Nation 2023 Season Report, November 15th, 2023; www.ctaudubon.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/11/Final-Osprey-Nation-Report-2023.pdf.

[63] Rosenberg et al.,2019, “Decline of the North American avifauna”; www.birds.cornell.edu/home/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/DECLINE-OF-NORTH-AMERICAN-AVIFAUNA-SCIENCE-2019.pdf.

[64] USGS, Eastern Ecological Science Center, North American Breeding Bird Survey, accessed 10-20-2023; www.pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/.

[65] DEEP, Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern Reptiles; portal.ct.gov/DEEP/Endangered-Species/Endangered-Species-Listings/Endangered-Threatened--Special-Concern-Reptiles.

[66] DEEP, Wildlife Division, Wildlife Diversity Program, and State and Tribal Wildlife Grants programs; personal communication from D. Fraser, December 7, 2023.

[67] USFWS, Final Rule – Northern Long-Eared Bat; www.fws.gov/species/northern-long-eared-bat-myotis-septentrionalis.

[68] Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (CAES); personal communication from J. Shepard, December 14, 2023.

[69] DEEP, Connecticut’s 2020 Forest Action Plan, December 2020; portal.ct.gov/-/media/DEEP/forestry/2020-Approved-CT-Forest-Action-Plan.pdf.

[70] Emerald Ash Borer Network, Biological Control; www.emeraldashborer.info/biological-control. Rutledge, Claire, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, “History and Current Status of Emerald Ash Borer in Connecticut, personal communication April 3, 2024.

[71] United States Army Corps of Engineers, New England District Website, Connecticut River Hydrilla, accessed 3-8-2024; www.nae.usace.army.mil/Missions/Projects-Topics/Connecticut-River-Hydrilla/.

[72] Ridge, Gale E., Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (CAES), Jumping Worms (Megascolecidae: Pheretima) in Connecticut, September 28, 2023; portal.ct.gov/-/media/CAES/DOCUMENTS/Publications/Fact_Sheets/Entomology/Jumping-worms-in-Connecticut.pdf.

[73] DEEP, Bureau of Materials Management and Compliance Assurance; personal communication from B. Gianetti, October 26, 2023.

[74] DEEP, Bureau of Materials Management and Compliance Assurance; personal communication from B. Giannetti, February 8, 2024.

[75] DEEP, Connecticut Equity and Environmental Justice Advisory Council (CEEJAC) Waste Subcommittee Meeting presentation, October 18, 2023; portal.ct.gov/-/media/DEEP/environmental_justice/CEEJAC-Meetings/CEEJAC-Waste-Subcommittee-Meeting-Slides_Oct-2023.pdf.

[76] DEEP, Bureau of Materials Management and Compliance Assurance; CT Bottle Bill Redemption Data, accessed February 23, 2024; portal.ct.gov/-/media/DEEP/reduce_reuse_recycle/bottles/bottle-bill-data---Jan-2024---thru-Q2-2023.pdf.

[77] Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electricity Data Browser, Retail Sales of Electricity, Residential Sector; www.eia.gov/electricity/data/browser/#/topic/5?agg=0,1&geo=008&endsec=o&freq=A&start=2001&end=2022&ctype=linechart&ltype=pin&rtype=s&pin=&rse=0&maptype=0.

[78] EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail Sales of Electricity, Commercial and Industrial Sector; www.eia.gov/electricity/data/browser/#/topic/5?agg=0,1&geo=008&endsec=m&freq=A&start=2001&end=2022&ctype=linechart&ltype=pin&rtype=s&maptype=0&rse=0&pin=.

[79] United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, SQGDP9 Real GDP by state; Connecticut, Accessed 4-1-3024; www.bea.gov/data/gdp/gross-domestic-product.

[80] Energize Connecticut, Connecticut Statewide Energy Efficiency Dashboard, accessed 1-30-2023; www.ctenergydashboard.com/Public/PublicPerformanceReports.aspx.

[81] ISO-New England, Final 2023 Energy Efficiency Forecast, April 28, 2023; www.iso-ne.com/static-assets/documents/2023/04/eef2023_final_slides.pdf.

[82] DEEP, 2018 Connecticut Comprehensive Energy Strategy, Building Sector; portal.ct.gov/-/media/DEEP/energy/CES/BuildingsSectorpdf.pdf.

[83] U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Emerging Technologies; www.energy.gov/eere/buildings/emerging-technologies.

[84] EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net Generation for Electric Power, Annual (CT - All Fuels); accessed February 29, 2024; www.eia.gov/electricity/data/browser/#/topic/0?agg=2,0,1&fuel=vtvv&geo=008&sec=008&linechart=ELEC.GEN.ALL-CT-98.A&columnchart=ELEC.GEN.ALL-CT-98.A&map=ELEC.GEN.ALL-CT-98.A&freq=A&ctype=linechart&ltype=pin&rtype=s&maptype=0&rse=0&pin=.

[85] DEEP, Bureau of Energy and Technology Policy; personal communication from M. Malmrose, March 28, 2024.

[86] DEEP, Public Act 23-102 – Section 35 Study, Draft Report on Select Connecticut Energy Supply Issues, February 20, 2024; www.dpuc.state.ct.us/DEEPEnergy.nsf/c6c6d525f7cdd1168525797d0047c5bf/edfbba1211ab2e0c85258ad0005400d9/$FILE/PA%2023-102,%20Section%2035%20-%20Study%20Draft%20Report.pdf.

[87] DEEP, Grid Scale Competitive Procurements; portal.ct.gov/DEEP/Energy/Grid-Scale-Procurements.

[88] ISO-New England, Final 2023 Transportation Electrification Forecast, April 28, 2023; http://www.iso-ne.com/static-assets/documents/2023/04/transfx2023_final.pdf.

[89] ISO-New England, Final 2023 Heating Electrification Forecast, Slide 43, April 28, 2023; www.iso-ne.com/static-assets/documents/2023/04/heatfx2023_final.pdf.

[90] ISO-New England, December 2023 Distributed Generation Survey Results, Distributed Generation Forecast Working Group, slide 5, February 16, 2024; www.iso-ne.com/static-assets/documents/100008/survey_results.pdf.

[91] Public Utilities Regulatory Authority (PURA) Docket 22-08-02, Order No. 12 Compliance Filings for Eversource, January 12, 2024 and United Illuminating, January 16, 2024; www.dpuc.state.ct.us/dockcurr.nsf/(Web+Main+View/All+Dockets)?OpenView&StartKey=22-08-02.

[92] ISO-New England, 2022 ISO New England Electric Generator Air Emissions Report: Appendix, December 21, 2023; TABLE 3.1; www.iso-ne.com/static-assets/documents/100006/final_2022_air_emissions_report_appendix.xlsx.

[93] ISO-New England, Final 2023 Photovoltaic (PV) Forecast, slides 34 and 43, April 10, 2023; www.iso-ne.com/static-assets/documents/2023/04/2_final_2023_pv_forecast.pdf.

[94] Connecticut Siting Council, Decisions and Pending Matters; portal.ct.gov/CSC.

[95] Energy Storage Solutions Performance Report, slide 9 of 18, accessed 2-6-2024; energystoragect.com/ess-performance-report/.

[96] DEEP, Bureau of Air Management; personal communication from P. Kritzler, February 2, 2024. USDOT, Federal Highway Administration. State Motor-Vehicle Registrations – 2021, February 2023 (Revised October 2023); www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics/2021/mv1.cfm#foot2.

[97] ISO-New England, Final 2023 Transportation Electrification Forecast, April 28, 2023; www.iso-ne.com/static-assets/documents/2023/04/transfx2023_final.pdf.

[98] Connecticut Department of Administrative Services (DAS), personal communication from S. McGirr, January 4, 2024, and Connecticut Department of Transportation (CTDOT), personal communication from P. Zelez, February 6, 2024.

[99] DEEP, 2020 Electric Vehicle Roadmap for Connecticut, April 21, 2020; portal.ct.gov/DEEP/Climate-Change/EV-Roadmap.

[100] United States Department of Transportation (US DOT), Federal Highway Administration, Office of Highway Policy Information, Motor Fuel & Highway Trust Fund; www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/motorfuelhwy_trustfund.cfm.

[101] United State Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2021, Table CT7; www.eia.gov/state/seds/archive/seds2021.pdf and State Energy Data System, Aviation gasoline and Jet Fuel consumption estimates, 2022; www.eia.gov/state/seds/data.php?incfile=/state/seds/sep_fuel/html/fuel_av.html&sid=CT, Tables F1 and F2.

[102] CTDOT, Bureau of Public Transportation, Office of Transit & Ridesharing; personal communication from T. Roth; February 29, 2024.

[103] CTDOT, CTTransit, Suspension of Bus Fares Statewide Continues Through March 31, 2023, November 29, 2022, and CTTransit FAQs- Fares, accessed 3-6-2024; www.cttransit.com/faqs-fares.

[104] DEEP, Department-wide Federal Fiscal Year 2023 Enforcement Statistics (10/01/22 - 09/30/23); (Federal Fiscal Year 2023); portal.ct.gov/DEEP/Enforcement/Reports/Annual-Environmental-Reports.

[105] Council on Environmental Quality, Preliminary findings of the review of programs and measures of local governments on the expenditure of funds from the surcharge on spirit or liquor beverage containers of fifty milliliters or less (Nips); portal.ct.gov/-/media/CEQ/Publications/2024/Preliminary-findings-of-the-review-of-the-miniature-beverage-container-surcharge-program-1-17-2024.pdf.