Private Wells

There are approximately 322,578 private residential wells in Connecticut that serve about 23% of the State’s population, more than 820,000 people (based on 2010 census). Private wells supplying residential homes for domestic use are not currently regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Private well owners are responsible for testing the quality of their own drinking water and maintaining their own wells. However, CT Local Health Departments and Districts have authority over private wells in their respective towns for proper siting and approval before construction. For technical assistance on well construction, maintenance, water quality or water treatment please contact the CT Department of Public Health, Private Well Program at 860-509-8401,, or contact your Local Health Department/District.

Well Owner's Checklist

The DPH’s Environmental and Occupational Health Assessment Program (EOHA) provides information about how chemical contamination in your well can affect your health. EOHA sets health-based Action Levels for common groundwater contaminants that can impact private wells. EOHA also has fact sheets about health hazards for some chemicals commonly detected in private wells. 

Private Well Testing

Laws and Regulations


Connecticut General Statutes Section 19a-36:

  • Authority to establish and amend the Public Health Code.
  • Authorization of the local director of health to:
    • Use an existing private well within 200 feet of a community water supply system
    • Install a replacement well within 200 feet of a community water supply system
    • Install an irrigation well within 200 of a community water supply system
    • Require mitigation measures including abandonment of irrigation wells

Connecticut General Statutes Section 19a-37:

  • Authority to adopt regulations pertaining to protection and location of new wells.
  • Authority to adopt regulations for the testing and reporting of water quality results.
  • Educational material concerning private well testing.
  • Authority to issue a certificate of occupancy on the basis of water quality test results.
  • Authority and basis to require testing of a private well for additional parameters.
  • Provisions on who may collect samples of water for water quality testing.



All agency regulations are available through the Connecticut Secretary of State website. 

The Public Health Code (PHC) of the State of Connecticut Title 19 provides regulations on public health and safety.  The following topics regarding private wells can be found within Title 19:

  • Water Supply Wells and Springs
    • PHC Section 19-13-B51 (pages 82-88)
  • Testing of Water Quality in Private Water Supply Systems
    • PHC Section 19-13-B101 (pages 105-107).
    • PHC Section 19-13-102 subsection (e), subdivision (2), (3), (4) (pages 117-120).

Well Drilling:

Statutes and Regulations regarding well drilling are under the authority of the Connecticut

Department of Consumer Protection (CT DCP)


Private Well Contamination Coordination Protocol: a resource for CT Local Health Departments and State Agencies


In the 2008 legislative session the General Assembly passed the following legislation:

Public Act 08-184 Sec. 51. (Effective from passage) The Department of Public Health, in consultation with the Departments of Environmental Protection and Consumer Protection, shall convene a working group of individuals to study and make legislative recommendations to ensure that property owners of new construction, with a private water supply well that serves as the source of drinking water are assured of an adequate supply of water that meets current standards for potability as defined in the regulations of Connecticut state agencies. The working group shall also study and make recommendations concerning the installation of replacement water supply wells on properties where there is insufficient area to meet the current separation distances as specified in the regulations of Connecticut state agencies.


The working group shall consist of: (1) The Commissioner of Public Health, or the commissioner's designee or designees; (2) the Commissioner of Environmental Protection, or the commissioner's designee or designees; (3) the Commissioner of Consumer Protection, or the commissioner's designee or designees; and (4) various interested stakeholders who have expressed to the Department of Public Health a willingness to work with the department on such issues. Not later than July 1, 2009, the working group shall report, in accordance with section 11-4a of the general statutes, its legislative recommendations to the joint standing committees of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating public health, environment and consumer protection.


If you need further information, please contact:


Private Well Program

410 Capitol Avenue, MS#11PWP

PO Box 340308

Hartford, CT 06134

(860) 509-8401