Siting Clean Energy on Connecticut Brownfields

State Incentives  |  Federal IncentivesMethane recovery and solar panels at the Hartford Landfill
State Resources  |  Federal Resources

Renewable energy, such as wind and solar, can be sited on land that has been or is perceived to be polluted and is now underused. These properties, called brownfields, may be particularly attractive because these types of renewable energy installations may require large sites, and brownfields are usually large sites located in areas with the existing infrastructure needed to support development.  Additionally, tax incentives and financing may be available to increase the attractiveness of siting renewable energy on brownfields in Connecticut. Below you will find links to information on financing and incentives, guidance, potential locations, and liability limitations for both clean energy projects and brownfield reuse. 

Municipalities Seeking Renewable Energy Developers for Landfill Sites

Plainfield Renewable Energy biomass power plant on former Gallup's Quarry Superfund site

The following municipalities (or private parties) control closed landfill sites and are seeking to develop renewable energy on these properties.  This list is updated periodically.

List of Municipalities Seeking Developers for Closed Landfills (1/29/16 update)

Please contact DEEP Brownfields Coordinator Amanda Limacher at if you would like to be added to this list.

Financing and Incentives

State and Federal Government Funding may be available for clean and energy efficiency projects developed on contaminated sites. Funding (grants and loans) and in some cases, local tax incentives are available for site assessment, cleanup, and redevelopment or reuse projects with clean energy and energy efficiency components.

Brownfield Funding Sources Remediation Roundtable Presentation (October 2016)
(begins on slide 61)

State Renewable Energy Incentives

The State of Connecticut offers a wide array of renewable energy programs and incentives:

Combined Heat and Power (CHP), also known as cogeneration, is an efficient, clean and reliable way to generate electricity and heat from a single fuel source, such as commercially available gas turbines, microturbines, reciprocating engines, steam turbines and fuel cells.  Brownfield sites can be ideal sites for CHP installations because of their size.  Commercial, industrial, and institutional customers in Eversource or UI service territories are eligible to participate in this program.  Connecticut’s Green Bank may offer proposals for grants, loans, loan enhancements or power purchase incentives to help finance the cost of CHP equipment.  For application details and project eligibility requirements, please contact the Connecticut Green Bank or visit EnergizeCT.

Connecticut Grid Scale Competitive Procurements In order to continue making progress towards the state’s greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets, diversify fuel sources, and improve electric reliability, DEEP has conducted procurements for grid-scale renewable and zero carbon resources to provide the support needed to bring these resources online. DEEP conducted its first procurement of renewable energy in 2011 using authority from Section 127 of Connecticut Public Act 11-80, which directed that 30 MW of Class I renewables be procured through an open, competitive RFP, and the state’s EDCs were authorized to own and operate no more than 10 MW each of that authority. Instead of utility-only procurements, DEEP has the responsibility for procurement of renewable resources to maintain the competitiveness of the solicitation and mitigate potential utility conflicts of interest. While Connecticut has already made significant progress towards its 100% Zero Carbon Target, its commitment to procuring grid-scale renewable and zero carbon resources is further solidified through Public Act 19-71, which requires DEEP to provide a procurement schedule for OSW informed by the Integrated Resources Plan (IRP), providing for the solicitation of resources with an aggregate nameplate capacity of 2,000 MW by 2030. Current and future procurements will include a qualitative evaluation that may take into account siting on a landfill or brownfield. For more information on these procurements, please see DEEP’s Grid Scale Procurement webpage.

Connecticut Property Assessed Clean Energy (C-PACE) is an innovative program that helps commercial, industrial and multi-family property owners access affordable, long-term financing for smart energy upgrades to their buildings.  Building owners may finance qualifying energy efficiency and clean energy improvements through placing a voluntary assessment on their property tax bill, which are paid back over time.  Repayment obligations transfer automatically to subsequent owners if the property is sold.  Building owners can qualify for 100% upfront, fixed-rate, long-term financing for up to 20 years under the C-PACE program.  These financing incentives can be particularly attractive to building owners who are interested in financing mechanisms for siting renewable energy on buildings within brownfields, thereby providing positive environmental, societal, and economic benefits in brownfield redevelopment.  Municipalities are also eligible for C-PACE financing for Microgrid development.  The C-PACE Program Guidelines, the governing document for all C-PACE program participants, contains full eligibility requirements and project guidelines.

Non-Residential Renewable Energy Solutions Program (NRES) With the sunset of multiple state renewable programs directed by Public Acts 18-50 and 19-35, PURA has initiated a new successor tariff structure that will comprise all residential and non-residential renewable programs that ended in December of 2021. For more information on the Residential Renewable Energy Solutions (RES) Program please visit PURA webpage. The Nonresidential Renewable Energy Solutions (NRES) Program is a six-year program that replaces the Low and Zero Carbon Renewable Energy Credit (LREC/ZREC) Program, with the first RFP being released on February 1, 2022. Eligible Class I renewable projects that are 2MW or less are encouraged to bid into the competitive auctions.  The NRES program offers three payment structures for 20-year contracts: buy-all, netting, and Small ZREC. The buy-all option offers $/MWh and $/REC incentives set by the competitive bid pricing. The netting option offers on-bill kWh netting on a monthly basis for energy and RECs exported. The Small ZREC option is only available for Class I projects of 100kW or less with buy-all and netting rates set based off previous Small ZREC program years. Bidders are able to select the payment structure that works best for their project. The program has an annual cap of 50MW for zero emission resources and 10MW a year for low emission resources. For more information on the NRES Program and to download and view program documents please visit either Eversource’s or UI’s respective webpages.

Statewide Shared Clean Energy Facility Program (SCEF)The statewide SCEF Program was developed pursuant to Section 7(a)(1)(C) of Public Act 18-50, An Act Concerning Connecticut’s Energy Future, codified as Section 16-244z(a)(1)(C) of the General Statutes of Connecticut. The statewide SCEF Program seeks the deployment of new or incremental Class I renewable generation projects for a 20-year term. Eligible projects are chosen through a competitive bidding procurement process each year, for a total of 6 years. The first procurement occurred in 2020. With the passage of Public Act 22-14, the SCEF Program now allows projects ranging in size from 100 to 5,000 kilowatts (AC), starting in the Year 4 Procurement. Earlier SCEF procurements only allowed projects up to 4,000 kilowatts. Further, Public Act 22-14 increased the yearly program capacity from 25 megawatts to 50 megawatts. The SCEF program utilizes bid preferences, for ranking and evaluation purposes only, to make projects with certain characteristics more competitive by lowering the price at which they are evaluated, while still paying selected projects the full bid price amount. So far, every SCEF solicitation has included a bid preference for projects sited on landfills or brownfields. More information about the annual SCEF solicitation can be found on Eversource’s and United Illuminating’s respective webpages. 

State Incentives for Brownfield Remediation and Development

Targeted Brownfield Development Loan Program offers low/flexible/deferred interest 20-year loans for environmental assessments, remediation, and other eligible costs for brownfield redevelopment.  Potential brownfield purchasers and current owners (including municipalities) may qualify for loans (up to $2 million).  Loans are awarded four times per year, but additional rounds may be made available at the Department of Economic and Community Development (DECD) Commissioner’s discretion.  If additional rounds of funding are approved, the updated funding schedule will be listed on that page.

For more detailed information, please submit your inquiries to

Federal Incentives for Brownfield Remediation and Development

U.S. EPA offers many incentives to eligible brownfield applicants, including grants and loans. (Availability of federal funding may vary by year.)  

Brownfields Grant Funding:

  • Area-wide Planning Pilot Program
  • Brownfields Assessment Grants 
  • State-Wide Revolving Loan Fund 
  • Brownfield Cleanup Grants
  • Environmental Workforce Development and Job Training Grants
  • Multi-Purpose Pilot Grants
  • Training, Research, and Technical Assistance Grants
  • Targeted Brownfields Assessments

State Resources: Requirements and Technical Assistance

Connecticut Toolbox for Brownfield Remediation and Reuse  DEEP has developed several guidance documents to assist in evaluating Brownfields sites for redevelopment:

State Brownfields and Voluntary Remediation Programs provide environmental, financial, and technical assistance and incentives that promote brownfield cleanup and redevelopment.

Connecticut Closed Landfills

The list and map include information about landfills that could potentially be used for clean energy development.  (They are not intended to be exhaustive or an acknowledgement of ideal properties for renewable energy development.)

Please contact DEEP Brownfields Coordinator Amanda Limacher at if you have questions about these documents or believe other sites should be included.

Federal Resources

Brownfield Road Map is designed to help non-technical stakeholders understand options for site investigation and cleanup and communicate effectively with technical professionals.

Revitalizing Contaminated Sites: Addressing Liability Concerns at Contaminated Properties handbook is a compilation of enforcement tools, guidance, and policy documents that are available to help promote the cleanup and revitalization of contaminated sites.

U.S. EPA Re-Powering America’s Land provides information on how contaminated lands, landfills, and mine sites can be reused as renewable energy installations and supplies best practices, tools and resources for screening properties for renewable energy potential.

Potential Advantages of Reusing Potentially Contaminated Land for Renewable Energy Fact Sheet.

EPA's RE-Powering America’s Land Electronic Decision Tree tool helps communities, local governments, site owners and other stakeholders explore the feasibility of solar or wind energy on formerly contaminated properties and underutilized sites.

Additional Information:

EPA Targeted Brownfields Assessment (TBA) Program assists municipalities and non-profits to minimize uncertainties of a contaminated site.

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts numerous analyses for using Renewable Energy on contaminated lands.

Renewable Energy Potential for Brownfield Redevelopment Strategies provides information on renewable energy and processes to identify renewable energy technologies for Brownfields.

Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

A NREL study for those interested in using renewables on Brownfield site.

Brownfields in Connecticut


Content last updated March 15, 2024.

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