Personal Impact

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Electricity at Home and Work

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Connecticut residents' electricity purchases decreased in 2023 to an average of 3,465 kilowatt-hours (KWh) per person.

In 2023, the retail sales of electricity by the residential sector decreased to 12,535 million KWh from 13,172 million KWh, a decrease of five percent from 2022 and 2.6 percent from the previous ten-year average (12,868 million KWh).77 The decline in the retail sales of electricity in the residential sector could be attributed to the number of solar photovoltaic installations in the state and the long term impact of electric conservation measures. The use of fossil fuels for electric generation increases air pollution, especially from less efficient/more polluting units used to meet peak demand. Increasing the efficiency of electricity generating units, using Class I and zero carbon resources, and reducing electricity use and peak demand are all viable strategies to reduce air pollution from electricity generation. While cooling degree days (CDD) (931) was 13.7 percent greater than the annual average since 1961 (819), the number of days greater than 90°F (12) was 21 percent less than the annual average since 1960 (15.1). Typically, the hotter the summer, the more electricity is used by residents to cool their homes, which means more electricity that needs to be generated, and the more greenhouse gas emissions that are potentially released to the environment. 

Connecticut’s commercial and industrial sectors are using electricity more efficiently.

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In 2023, Connecticut’s commercial and industrial sectors purchased approximately 13,844 million KWh.78 The purchase of electricity in the commercial sector decreased from 2022 levels by 3.2 percent and 6.8 percent for the industrial sector. Connecticut’s 2023 annual average Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was calculated at approximately $282,478 million (chained 2017 dollars) and had an increase of approximately two percent from 2022.79 Overall, there was an increase in efficiency (GDP($)/KWh) of 16 percent from 2017 to 2023.

Estimated annual savings from electricity conservation measures have generally been declining since 2016.

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As mentioned above, reducing electricity demand, especially peak demand, is an effective strategy for reducing air emissions from fossil fueled electric generation. Estimated annual savings from electric efficiency measures in 2023 (164,485 megawatt hours (MWh)) was approximately 34 percent less than in 2022 (250,189 MWh), and almost half of the ten-year average of 326,589 MWh.80  While Connecticut’s energy-efficiency programs have helped small and large businesses, homeowners and renters, and state and local governments better manage their energy use, the expenditure of funds (annual spending) for each MWh of electricity conserved (annual savings) has increased by 177 percent over the last ten years. Programs and services for energy efficiency, both electricity and natural gas, are administered and delivered by Connecticut’s electric and gas utilities but funded from a “Public Benefits Charge” on electric bills and through a conservation charge included in natural gas rates. 

The Independent System Operator for New England (ISO-NE) estimated that the incremental annual energy savings, net of embedded expiring measures, is expected to decrease over the next ten years.81 Energy efficiency measures are important because residential and commercial buildings use approximately 74 percent of all electricity and 39 percent of all energy use in the United States. In Connecticut, the approximately 1.4 million households and 140,000 businesses together account for more than 70 percent of Connecticut’s 750 trillion British thermal unit (Btu) of annual energy consumption.82 With widespread adoption of existing energy-efficiency building technologies, greater use of more energy efficient multi-family housing, and the introduction and use of new energy efficiency technologies, energy use in homes and commercial buildings could be reduced by 50 percent.83

Goal: Public Act 18-50 introduced a new policy of the state to reduce energy consumption by 1.6 million MMBtus (one million British Thermal Units), or “the equivalent megawatts of electricity,” annually each year for calendar years commencing on and after January 1, 2020, through calendar year 2025. Specific goals for energy conservation (electric savings) vary for each year based on a number of factors, including the proposed budget for conservation measures in a given year.


Technical Note: Personal impact indicators illustrate trends in behavior or practices that can be expected to influence the condition of tomorrow’s air, water, land and wildlife. *The vertical axis in the charts above “Residential Electric Sales” and “Efficiency at Work” have been shortened, beginning at 3,000 KWh/capita, 15.0 GDP($)/KWh, and 13,000 million KWh, respectively, rather than the customary zero. Chained 2017 dollars is a dollar measure that is adjusted for price changes occurring since 2017.


77 Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electricity Data Browser, Retail Sales of Electricity, Residential Sector;,1&geo=008&endsec=o&freq=A&start=2001&end=2022&ctype=linechart&ltype=pin&rtype=s&pin=&rse=0&maptype=0.

78 EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail Sales of Electricity, Commercial and Industrial Sector;,1&geo=008&endsec=m&freq=A&start=2001&end=2022&ctype=linechart&ltype=pin&rtype=s&maptype=0&rse=0&pin=.

79 United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, SQGDP9 Real GDP by state; Connecticut, Accessed 4-1-3024;

80 Energize Connecticut, Connecticut Statewide Energy Efficiency Dashboard, accessed 1-30-2023;

81 ISO-New England, Final 2023 Energy Efficiency Forecast, April 28, 2023;

82 DEEP, 2018 Connecticut Comprehensive Energy Strategy, Building Sector;

83 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Emerging Technologies;