Guidelines for Adapted Physical Education


American Academy of Pediatrics (2011). June 6 press release on childhood obesity.

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Berkeley Heights Public Schools (2005).  Adapted physical education
curriculum and program description, Grades K-12, Berkeley Heights, New Jersey.

Block, M. (2007). A teacher’s guide to including students with disabilities in general physical education (3rd Edition).  Baltimore, MDPaul H. Brookes Publishing Co., Inc.

Block, M. (2000). As cited in Promoting Adapted Physical Education for 2004! 

Block, M. (2000). Suggested Modifications for Children with Disabilities for the FITNESSGRAM. University of Virginia Kinesiology Program. 

Block, M. & Krebs, P. (1992).  An alternative to least restrictive environments: a continuum of support to general physical education.  Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly [APAQ], 9(2), 97 - 113. 

Bronson, J., & Raschke, D. (1999). Creative educators at work: All children including those with disabilities can play traditional classroom games. Retrieved May 15, 2007.  

Broward County Public Schools (date unknown). Exceptional Student Education, under “Introduction.”   

Buchinger, R., Buss, J., Gorsche, M., Goudreau, L., Laedtke, B., McCauley, L., & Warrens, R. (2003). Special physical education program and activity guide. Appleton, WI: Appleton Area School District. 

Burke, R., Goodwin, K., Suneson, B., Wiltse. S. (2005). Minnesota DAPE best practices operational guide. MN DAPE Leadership Committee.

California Department of Education (2001). Adapted physical education guidelines in California schools. Pomona, CA: California Polytechnic University.

Castelli, D. & Holland-Fiorentino (2008).  Physical education technology playbook.  Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.

CFR 300.17: Key Provisions of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act 

Colorado Department of Education (2007).  Colorado Guidelines for adapted physical education. 

Conaster, P., Editor (2004). P.E. Links 4 U: Adapted physical education; Vol.6 No.1. 

Connecticut State Department of Education/Bureau of Special Education, 2-28-12. Aligning student success plans (SSPs) with IEPs, SOPs, Section 504 Plans, and individualized healthcare plans.  Internal document. 

Connecticut State Department of Education (2011). Student Success Plans. 

Connecticut State Department of Education (2009). The "Third Generation" Connecticut Physical Fitness Assessment, Test Administrator’s ManualConnecticut State Department of Education.  

Connecticut State Department of Education (2008). Using Scientific Research Based Interventions: Improving Education for All Students – Connecticut’s Framework for RTI, Connecticut State Department of Education.   

Connecticut State Department of Education (2007). A Parent’s Guide to Special Education in Connecticut. 

DeFur, S. (2000, November). Designing individualized education program (IEP) transition plans (ERIC Digest #E598). Arlington, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education.  

Dole. R. L. (2004). Collaborating successfully with your school's physical therapist. Teaching Exceptional Children, 36(5), 28-35. 

Durstine, J., Painter, P., Franklin, B., Morgan, D., Pitetti, K., & Roberts, S. (2000). Physical activity for the chronically ill and disabled. Sports Med. 2000; 30 (3):207 –219[CrossRef][Web of Science][Medline] 

Dykens, E.,  Rosner, B., & Butterbaugh, G. (1998).  Exercise and sports in children and adolescents with developmental disabilities. Positive physical and psychosocial effects.  Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America; 7:757–771. viii. 

Ebbeling, C.,  Pawlak, D. & Ludwig, D. (2002).  Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet 360:473–482. 

Etzel-Wise, D. & Mears, B. (2004).  Adapted physical education and therapeutic recreation in schools.  Intervention in School and Clinic, Vol. 39, 223.

Folsom-Meek, S., Nearing, R. & Bock, R. (2007). Transitioning children, youths, and young adults with disabilities: without transition services, the purpose of inclusion may go unfulfilled. JOPERD--The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, March 1 (38-45).

Foster, D. (2010).  Determining eligibility for adapted physical education: selection and application of assessment tools. University of Florida, College of Health and Human Performance Department of Health Education & Behavior, HSC6905 Advanced Adapted Physical Activity, Fall. 

Frey, G. and Chow, B. (2006).  Relationship between BMI, physical fitness, and motor skills in youth with mild intellectual disabilities.  International Journal of Obesity; 30:861–867. 

Giammattei, J., Blix, G., Marshak, H., Wollitzer,. A., & Pettitt, D. (2003). Television watching and soft drink consumption: associations with obesity in 11- to 13-year-old schoolchildren. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine; 157:882–886. 

Hogberg. C, Editor (2012).  Popular Scales Used for Assessing Kids with Special Needs.  PECentral.  

Houwen, S., Hartman, E., & Cisscher, C. (2009). Physical activity and motor skills in children with and without visual impairments. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40(1), 103-109.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997.  P.L. 105-17, 20 U.S.C. 1400. 

Jenkins, J., Hudson, R. & Johnson, E. (2007).  Screening for at-risk readers in a response to intervention framework, School Psychology Review Dec.; 36, 4; ProQuest Education Journals pg. 582.

King, G.; Law, M.;  King, S.; Rosenbaum, P.; Kertoy, M.; & Young, N. (2003).  A conceptual model of the factors affecting the recreation and leisure participation of children with disabilities.  Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics; 23:63–90. 

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Lawson, H. & Sailor, W. (2000). Integrating services, collaborating, and developing connections with schools. Focus on Exceptional Children 33(2). 1-22. 

Maine Task Force on Adapted Physical Education. 2000. Professionals Allied For Movement Guidelines. Maine Department of Education.

Martin, J. & Mushett, A. (1996). Social support mechanisms among athletes with disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly , 13 , 74-83.

McBurney, H.; Taylor, N.; Dodd, K.; & Graham, H. (2003).  A qualitative analysis of the benefits of strength training for young people with cerebral palsy.  Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology; 45:658–663. 

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Mellard, D., & Johnson, E. (2008). RTI: A practitioner's guide to implementing response to intervention. CA: Corwin Press.

Morris, G. & Stiehl, J. (1999). Changing kids games (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Murata, N. & Maeda, J. (2007). Using occupational therapy strategies by adapted physical educators and classroom teachers for preschoolers with developmental delays. Palaestra (March 22).

Murphy, N. & Carbone, P. (2008).  Promoting the participation of children with disabilities in sports, recreation, and physical activities. Pediatrics 121(5):1057–1061.  

Murphy, N., Christian, B., Caplin, D. &Young, P. (2007).  The health of caregivers for children with disabilities: caregiver perspectives. Child Care Health Development; 33 (2):180 –187. 

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NASDSE (National Association of State Directors of Special Education) (2005).  Response to Intervention: Policy Considerations and Implementation.

NASPE (National Association for Sport and Physical Education) (2010).  Position statement on eligibility criteria for adapted physical education services

NCPERID (National Consortium for Physical Education and Recreation for Individuals with Disabilities) (2005). Physical Education Guidelines Brochure. Retrieved April 3, 2007, from

Neal, J.,  Bigby, L., & Nicholson, R. (2004). Occupational therapy, physical therapy and orientation and mobility services in public schools. Intervention in School & Clinic, Vol. 39, 2004.

Northside Independent School District (San Antonio, Texas) Special Education Department Web page.

Okely, A., Booth, M. & Chey, T. (2004).   Relationships between body composition and fundamental movement skills among children and adolescents. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport; 75:238–247.

Patel, D. & Greydanus, D. (2002).  The pediatric athlete with disabilities. Pediatric Clinics of North America; 49:803–827. 

PECentral (2012). Adapted Physical Education Assessment Instruments.  

P.E. Links 4U (2007)

Rainforth, B. & York-Barr, J. (1997). Collaborative teams for students with severe disabilities: Integrating Therapy and Educational Services. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., Inc.

Ravesloot, C., Seekins, T. & Young, Q. (1998). Health promotion for people with chronic illness and physical disabilities: the connection between health psychology and disability prevention. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 5: 76–85. 

Rimmer, J. (2005).  The conspicuous absence of people with disabilities in public fitness and recreation facilities: lack of interest or lack of access? American Journal of Health Promotion,19:327–329. 

Rimmer J., Rowland, J., & Yamaki, K. (2007).  Obesity and secondary conditions in adolescents with disabilities: addressing the needs of an underserved population. Journal of Adolescent Health; 41:224–229 as cited inU.S. National Institutes of Health, PubMed Central. Published online 2010 April 16.  

Sayers, L., Shapiro, D. & Webster, G. (2003).  Community-based physical activities for elementary students. JOPERD--The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, Vol. 74. Journal article excerpt.

Seaman, J. (2003).  Adapted physical education and special education: there is a strong resemblance, but we are not related!  Palaestra, June 22. 

State Education Resource Center (2010). Early Childhood SRBI Supporting All Children. 

Stein, J. (1978). As cited in Promoting Adapted Physical Education for 2004! Online article in 

Summerbell, C. (2007). The identification of effective programs to prevent and treat overweight preschool children. Obesity (Silver Spring); 15:1341–1342. 

Tripp, A., & Piletic, C. (2004). A position statement on including students with disabilities in physical education. Reston, VA: American Association for Active Lifestyles and Fitness.  

United States Department of Education (2006). Assistance to States for the Education of Children with Disabilities and Preschool Grants for Children With Disabilities; Final Rule. Federal Register, 2006;71 :46539 –46845. 

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2007).  Report of the Surgeon General Physical Activity and Health Persons with DisabilitiesCenters for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.  

United States Department of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, President’s Council of Physical Fitness and Sports (2008). Healthy People 2010: Chapter 22—Physical Activity and Fitness

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2000). Healthy People 2010, Report of the Surgeon General.  

Weiss, J, Diamond, T, Demark, J, & Lovald, B. (2003). Involvement in Special Olympics and its relations to self-concept and actual competency in participants with developmental disabilities. Res Dev Disabil; 24 (4):281 –305[CrossRef][Web of Science][Medline] 

Wessel, J. & Zittel, L. (1995). Smart start: Preschool movement curriculum designed for children of all abilities: a complete program of motor and play skills for all children ages 3 through 5, including those with special developmental and learning needs.  Austin, TX: Pro-Ed Publishers. 

Wilsey Forrester, T. (2009). Successful inclusion in the general physical education setting. 

Wilson, P. (2002). Exercise and sports for children who have disabilities. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am.; 13 (4): 907–923, ix 

Wind, W., Schwend, R. & Larson, J. (2004). Sports for the physically challenged child. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. ;12 (2):126 –137[Abstract/Free Full Text] 

Winnick, J., Editor (2011).  Adapted physical education and sport, Fifth Edition, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.

Winnick, J. , Editor (2005). Adapted physical education and sport, Fourth Edition, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.

Winnick, J. (2000). As cited in Promoting Adapted Physical Education for 2004! Online article in P.E.Links4U website. 

Winnick, J. & Short, F. (1999).  The Brockport Physical Fitness Test Manual.  Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers   

Winship, J. (2011). The spirit of collaboration. Southeast Education Network Magazine, March 21.