Pollinator Information


Many kinds of animals are pollinators, including hummingbirds, butterflies, moths, beetles, flies and wasps as well as bees, but this website focuses mainly on bees because they are the most important pollinators of crops in our state, and they are also the focus of recent concerns.

The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station has responsibility for the state honey bee registration and inspection program (link to Beekeeper Information and Registration here) and also has active research and public information programs on plants used as sources of nectar and pollen by bees, pollination of crop plants such as pumpkin and winter squash, routes and levels of exposure of bees to pesticides, and the diversity of bees in Connecticut.

Factsheets and Reports:

Materials from the Conference, Creating and Improving Habitat for Pollinators, 2019


Materials from the Conference, Creating and Improving Habitat for Pollinators, 2018

Materials from the Conference, Creating and Improving Habitat for Pollinators, 2017

Materials from the Conference, Successfully Establishing Plants for Pollinators, 2016

Natural Resources Conservation Service, a Source of Funding for Pollinator Habitat:


General information on pollinators


Cost share programs that provide funding toward pollinator habitat:

Environmental Quality Incentives Program

Conservation Stewardship Program




2016 Pollinator Health Law

Public Act (16-17) does the following:

  1. Puts some restrictions on the neonicotinoids insecticides that are most highly toxic to bees
  2. Creates a Pollinator Advisory Committee from the staff of the Experiment Station
  3. Requires a study of the Varroa mite attacking honey bees and an evaluation of the possibilities of breeding bees resistant to the mites
  4. Requires the Experiment Station to create a citizen’s guide to model pollinator habitat
  5. Promotes establishment of pollinator habitat by various state agencies and by utilities
  6. Sets qualifications for the state apiary inspector

Technical Publications:

Stoner, K. A., Nurse, A., Koethe, R. W., Hatala, M. S., and Lehmann, D. M. (2022). Where Does Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Pollen Come from? A Study of Pollen Collected from Colonies at Ornamental Plant Nurseries. Insects13(8). DOI: 10.3390/insects13080744

Stoner, K. A. (2020). Pollination is sufficient, even with low bee diversity, in pumpkin and winter squash fields. Agronomy10, 1141. DOI: 10.3390/agronomy10081141 (PDF)

Sponsler, D. B., Grozinger, C. M., Richardson, R. T., Nurse, A., Brough, D. Patch, H. M., and Stoner, K. A. (2020). A screening-level assessment of the pollinator-attractiveness of ornamental nursery stock using a honey bee foraging assay. Sci. Rep.10831. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-57858-2

Zarrillo, T. A. and K. A. Stoner. (2019). The bee fauna of an Atlantic coastal plain tidal marsh community in Southern New England, USA. J. Melittology, 86, 1-34. doi.org/10.17161/jom.v0i86.7334

Stoner, K. A., Richard S. Cowles, Andrea Nurse, and Brian D. Eitzer. (2019). Tracking Pesticide Residues to a Plant Genus Using Palynology in Pollen Trapped from Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) at Ornamental Plant Nurseries. Environmental Entomology.

Stoner, K., Eitzer, B., Cowles, R. (2017). Quantifying Exposure of Bees to Neonicotinoids in Nectar and Pollen of Nursery Plants.

Zarrillo, T. A., J. S. Acher, J. Gibbs, and K. A. Stoner. (2016). New and noteworthy records of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) for Connecticut. J. Kansas Entomological Society89, 138-157.

Stoner, K. A. (2016). Current Pesticide Risk Assessment Protocols Do Not Adequately Address Differences Between Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) and Bumble Bees (Bombus spp.). Front. Environ. Sci. DOI: 10.3389/fenvs.2016.00079

Stoner, K. A., and Eitzer, B. D. (2013). Using a Hazard Quotient to Evaluate Pesticide Residues Detected in Pollen Trapped from Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) in Connecticut. PloS One, 8(10). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077550 

Stoner K. A., and B. D. Eitzer. (2012). Movement of Soil-Applied Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam into Nectar and Pollen of Squash (Cucurbita pepo). PLoS One 7(6). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0039114.



Additional Resources:

Portraits of a Few Bee Species Native to Connecticut

Connecticut Bombus Guide