Jeffrey S. Ward

Jeffrey Ward

Department of Environmental Science and Forestry
The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station
123 Huntington Street
New Haven, CT 06511
Voice: (203) 974-8495 Fax: (203) 974-8502


Dr. Ward has expertise in identification and life histories of native trees and shrubs, forest management, invasive shrub control, plantation establishment, and forest nursery operation. He is knowledgeable about the natural history of Connecticut, landscape maintenance, and methods of reducing deer browse damage.



Ph.D. Purdue University (Forest Ecology) 1987

M.S. The Ohio State University (Silviculture) 1983

Peace Corps Training (Forestry Extension) 1979

B.Sc. The Ohio State University (Natural Resources) 1979


Station Career:

Chief Scientist 2005-present

Agricultural Scientist 2003-2004

Associate Scientist 1998-2002

Assistant Scientist 1987-1997


Past Research:

Research conducted during M.S. program focused how regeneration was influenced by alternative management techniques. During his Ph.D. program, Dr. Ward examined the community structure of an old-growth upland oak forest. Earlier research at the station included evaluation of browse protection and weed control in forest plantations, an examination of fuelwood thinning on regeneration and volume growth of residual trees, and the influence of urban development on inland wetland communities.


Current Research:

“Stormwise” (with University of Connecticut, Audubon Connecticut, Northeast Utilities, and others) – Eight study areas will be established in 2013-2014 to examine alternative methods of creating storm resistant forests along utility corridors and highways by combining silvicultural and arboricultural practices.


Foresters for the Birds - CT (with Audubon Connecticut, CT-DEEP Wildlife) – Will develop and promote songbird habitat assessment protocols and silvicultural guidelines for southern New England based on an earlier model created by Audubon Vermont for northern hardwood and conifer forests.


Rehabilitating high-graded stands (with Town of Guilford, Rebekah's Hill Flora and Fauna Preservation Society, Regional Water Authority, Weantinoge Heritage Land Trust, White Memorial Foundation, Winchester Land Trust, CT-DEEP Wildlife) – Five study areas were established in 2012-2013 to evaluate two systems of rehabilitating high-graded stands (low and high intensity) that could be implemented on family forests.


Alternative methods of Japanese barberry control (with University of Connecticut, The Nature Conservancy, Regional Water Authority; Aquarion Water Company, CT-DEEP Forestry) – This study was begun in 2006 to examine the cost and effectiveness of treatment combinations to control Japanese barberry and other invasive species. The study is also examining the interaction of invasive and deer browse control on forest regeneration and herbaceous communities. A total of fifty-six treatment/timing combinations have been examined on twenty-eight study areas.


Crop-tree management in Connecticut (with CT-DEEP Forestry; Northeast Utilities; Regional Water Authority; Metropolitan District Commission; Torrington Water Company) – This study was begun in 1988 with seven study areas to examine precommercial crop tree release. The study was expanded in 1994 to examine crop tree release of small oak sawtimber (five study areas), in 1996 for black birch (five study areas), and in 2003 to compare crop tree release with traditional thinning in mature oak sawtimber (six study areas).


Natural changes in unmanaged hardwood forests (with CT-DEEP Forestry; Great Mountain Forest; and the White Memorial Forest) – This study was begun in 1926 and has monitored the influence of disturbance and defoliation on natural succession in eight unmanaged Connecticut forests by monitoring the growth and survival of over 46,000 trees. Plots have been surveyed at 10-year intervals and will be re-measured in 2017.


Influence of advanced regeneration and cutting methods on 12-15 year-old hardwood regeneration (with Regional Water Authority; White Memorial Foundation; and The Nature Conservancy) – Three study areas were established 1981 to monitor regeneration after six harvesting methods. The study has gone through two cutting cycles and the third cutting cycle is scheduled for ~2020.


Selected recent publications available from the author,


Crop Tree Management

  • Ward, J. S. (2013). Precommercial crop tree release increases upper canopy persistence and diameter growth of oak saplings: 23-year results. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 30(4): 1-8. (in press).
  • Ward, J. S. (2009). Intensity of precommercial crop tree release increases diameter growth and survival of upland oaks. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 39: 118-130.
  • Ward, J. S. (2007). Crop-tree release increase growth of black birch in southern New England. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 24(2): 117-122.
  • Ward, J. S. (2002). Crop tree release increases growth of mature red oak sawtimber. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 19(4): 149-154.

Forest Management

  • Ward, J. S., T. E. Worthley, J. P. Smallidge, and K. Bennett. (2013). Northeastern Forest Regeneration Handbook, revised. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry. NA-TP-03-06. 59p.
  • Ochterski, J., P. J. Smallidge, and J. Ward. (2009). Northeastern tree planting and reforestation. ForestConnect, Cornell University Cooperative Extension, Department of Natural Resources. 68 p.
  • Ward, J. S., G. R. Stephens, and F. J. Ferrandino. (2005). Influence of cutting methods on residual stand growth in sawtimber oak stands. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 22(1): 59-67.
  • Ward, J. S., M. E. Montgomery, C. A. Cheah, B. P. Onken, and R. S. Cowles. (2004). Eastern Hemlock Forests: Guidelines to Minimize the Impacts of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid. USDA Forest Service Northeastern Area State & Private Forestry NA-TP-03-04. 28p.
  • Ward, J. S., and G. R. Stephens. (2003). Sawtimber oak stand response to six distinct cutting methods. P. 306-316 In Proceedings 13th Central Hardwood Forestry Conference, USDA Forest Service General Technical Bulletin NC-234.

Invasive Control

  • Ward, J. S., S. C. Williams, and T. E. Worthley. (in press) Comparing effectiveness and impacts of Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii DC) control treatments and herbivory on plant communities. Invasive Plant Science and Management.
  • Ward, J. S., S. C. Williams, and T. E. Worthley. (2013). Japanese barberry control methods reference guide for foresters and professional woodland managers. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Special Bulletin - February 2013. 12p.
  • Ward, J. S., and T. Mervosh. (2012). Nonchemical and herbicide treatments for management of Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum). Invasive Plant Science and Management 5: 9-19.
  • Ward, J. S., and S. C. Williams. (2011). Controlling an invasive shrub, Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii DC), using directed heating with propane torches. Natural Areas Journal. 31(2): 156-162.
  • Williams, S. C., and J. S. Ward. (2010). Effects of Japanese barberry (Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) removal and resulting microclimatic changes on Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) abundances in Connecticut, USA. Environmental Entomology 39(6): 1911-1921.
  • Ward, J. S., S. C. Williams, and T. E. Worthley. (2010). Effectiveness of two-stage control strategies for Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii) varies by initial clump size. Invasive Plant Science and Management. 3:60–69.
  • Ward, J. S., T. E. Worthley, and S. C. Williams. (2009). Controlling Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii DC) in southern New England. Forest Ecology and Management 257: 561-566.
  • Williams, S. C., J. S. Ward, T. E. Worthley, and K. C. Stafford. (2009). Managing Japanese barberry (Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) infestations reduces blacklegged tick (Acari: Ixodidae) abundance and infection prevalence with Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae). Environmental Entomology 38(4): 977-984.

Deer Browse

  • Ward, J. S. and S. C. Williams. (2010). Effectiveness of deer repellents in Connecticut. Human-Wildlife Interactions 4:56-66.
  • Ward, J. S., and T. Mervosh. (2008). Reducing browse damage on eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) in southern New England, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 255(5-6): 1559-1567.
  • Williams, S. C., J. S. Ward, and U. Ramakrishnan. (2008). Endozoochory by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) across a suburban/woodland interface. Forest Ecology and Management 255: 940–947.
  • Williams, S. C., and J. S. Ward. (2006). Exotic seed dispersal by white-tailed deer in southern Connecticut, USA. Natural Areas Journal. 26(4): 383-390.
  • Williams, S. C., J. S. Ward, and U. Ramakrishnan. (2006). Deer damage management options. The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 1005 15p.
  • Ward, J. S., M. P. N. Gent, and G. R. Stephens. (2000). Interaction of initial size and browse protection on height growth of northern red oak and eastern white pine. Forest Ecology and Management. 127(1-3): 205-216.

Forest Dynamics

  • Ward, J. S., S. L. Anagnostakis, and F. J. Ferrandino. (2010). Long-term changes in canker incidence on birch (Betula sp) in Connecticut. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 27(3): 85-91.
  • Ward, J. S. (2005). Stand dynamics in Connecticut forests: the New-Series plots (1959-2000). The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 995.35p.
  • Aldrich, P. R., G. R. Parker, J. S. Ward, and C. H. Michler. (2003). Spatial dispersion of trees in an old-growth temperate hardwood forest over sixty years of succession. Forest Ecology and Management 180(1-3): 475-491.
  • Ward, J. S., S. L. Anagnostakis, and F. J. Ferrandino. (1999). Seventy years of stand dynamics in Connecticut hardwood forests - the Old-Series plots (1927-1997). The Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 959.
  • Ward, J. S., and F. J. Ferrandino. (1999). New derivation reduces bias and increases power of Ripley’s L index. Ecological Modelling. 116: 225-236.

Prescribed Fire

  • Brose, P. H., T. M. Schuler, and J. S. Ward. (2006). Responses of oak and other hardwood regeneration to prescribed fire: what we know as of 2005. P.123-135 In Proceedings: Fire in eastern oak forests: delivering science to land managers. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NRS-P-1. 303 p.
  • Ward, J. S., and P. H. Brose. (2004). Mortality, survival, and growth of individual stems after prescribed burning in recent hardwood clearcuts. P.193-199 In Proceedings 14th Central Hardwood Conference. USDA Forest Service General Technical Bulletin NE-316. [CD-ROM].
  • Stafford, K. C., J. S. Ward, and L. A. Magnarelli. (1998). Impact of controlled burns on the abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 35(4), 510-513.