Goudarz Molaei



Department of Entomology
The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station
123 Huntington Street
New Haven, CT 06511
Voice: (203) 974-8487 Fax: (203) 974-8502
E-mail: Goudarz.Molaei@ct.gov



Dr. Molaei has expertise in the areas of molecular biology, physiology, genetics, vector biology, epidemiology of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases.



  • Ph.D., Molecular biology and physiology, University of Toronto, Canada, 2004
  • M.Sc., Vector-borne diseases and medical entomology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, 1991
  • B.Sc., Entomology, University of Tehran, Iran, 1985

Station Career:

Agricultural Scientist: 2017-2022; 2024-present

Chief Scientist/Department Head: 2022-2024

Associate Agricultural Scientist: 2014-2017

Assistant Agricultural Scientist II: 2006-2014

Postdoctoral Agricultural Scientist: 2004-2006

Past Research

Insect Sterile Techniques (S.I.T.) in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); epidemiology of malaria and behavioral ecology of malaria vectors in collaboration with the World Health Organization / Tropical Diseases Research (WHO / TDR); molecular biology of refractoriness response in Anopheles gambiae, the major vector of malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa to plasmodium parasites; Drosophila genetics and molecular biology; insect neurotransmission and physiology, biogenic amines and their respective receptors in insects’ visceral muscle.


Current Research:

During the last few decades, vector-borne diseases have resurged dramatically. Several millions of new cases occur each year with devastating impacts on human and animal lives and economies. According to the World Health Organization, about 10% of the total global burden of diseases is due to those transmitted by arthropod vectors. Dr. Molaei’s research activities and interests are in the areas of vector-borne diseases with emphasis on the vector-host interactions as an essential element in transmission. He makes use of molecular biology techniques to better understand epidemiology and ecology of West Nile and eastern equine encephalitis viruses with the goal of reducing the risk of infections in humans and domesticated animals. Dr. Molaei’s research in collaboration with scientists at the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station and other institutions has revealed that while some mosquito vectors exhibit opportunistic blood feeding behavior, others show a great deal of specialization for feeding on only one group of vertebrate hosts. For some species, information is limited to a few locations that may be the reflection of host abundance rather than the innate preference. Clearly, the complexity of the vector-host interactions and its epidemiological relevance require further investigations.


Selected publications available from the author, Goudarz.Molaei@ct.gov

  • Stafford, K. C. III., Molaei, G., Williams, S. C., and Mertins, J. W. (2023). Introduction of the ectoparasite Rhipicephalus pulchellus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) into Connecticut with a human traveler from Tanzania, and a review of its importation records into the United States. Journal of Medical Entomology. DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjad109 

  • Holcomb, K. M., Khalil, N., Cozens, D. W., Cantoni, J. L., Brackney, D. E., Linske, M. A., Williams, S. C., Molaei, G., and Eisen, R. J. (2023). Comparison of acarological risk metrics derived from active and passive surveillance and their concordance with tick-borne disease incidence. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, 14, 102243.

  • Price, K. J., Khalil, N., Witmier, B. J., Coder, B. L., Boyer, C. N., Foster, E., Eisen, R. J., and Molaei, G.* (2023). Evidence of Protozoan and Bacterial Infection and Co-Infection and Partial Blood Feeding in The Invasive Tick Haemaphysalis longicornis in Pennsylvania. Journal of Parasitology, 109(4), 265–273.

  • Khalil, N., Shepard, J. J., Foss, K., and Molaei, G.* (2023). Evidence of Uranotaenia sapphirina (Diptera: Culicidae) feeding on annelid worms in the Northeastern United States. Journal of Medical Entomology, 60(3), 425–431. DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjad034

  • Molaei, G. and Andreadis, T. G. (2022). The Connecticut Center for Vector Biology & Zoonotic Diseases: A Long History of Research Partnership and Outreach in Public Health Entomology. Wing Beats, 33, 30-34. PDF online: https://cdn.ymaws.com/www.mosquito.org/resource/resmgr/docs/publications/wingbeats/summer_2022_44_pages.pdf

  • Khalil, N., Dugas K. D., Cantoni J. L., Stafford III, K. C., and Molaei, G.* (2022). Anomalous Morphologies in Ixodes scapularis Feeding on Human Hosts. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. DOI: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2022.101993

  • Molaei, G.*, Eisen, L. M., Price, K. J., and Eisen, R. J. (2022). Range Expansion of Native and Invasive Ticks, a Looming Public Health Threat. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiac249

  • Stafford, K. C. III, Molaei, G., Williams, S. C., and Mertins, J. W. (2022). Rhipicephalus capensis (Acari: Ixodidae), A Geographically Restricted South African Tick, Returning with A Human Traveler to the United States. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, 13(3). DOI: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2022.101912

  • Little, E. A. H., Hutchinson, M. L., Price, K. J., Marini, A., Shepard, J. J., and Molaei, G.* (2022). Spatiotemporal Distribution, Abundance, and Host Interactions of Two Invasive Vectors of Arboviruses, Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus, in Pennsylvania, USA. Parasites and Vectors15. DOI: 10.1186/s13071-022-05151-8

  • Khalil, N., Little, E. A. H., Akaratovic, K. I., Kiser, J. P., Abadam, C. F., Yuan, K. J., Misencik, M. J., Armstrong, P. M., and Molaei, G.* (2021). Host Associations of Culex pipiens: A Two-Year Analysis of Bloodmeal Sources and Implications for Arboviral Transmission in Southeastern Virginia. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 21(12), 961-972. DOI: 10.1089/vbz.2021.0069

  • Molaei, G.*, Little, E. A. H., Williams, S. C., and Stafford, K. C. III. (2021). First Record of Established Populations of the Invasive Pathogen Vector and Ectoparasite Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Connecticut, United States. Journal of Medical Entomology, 58(6), 2508-2513. DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjab117

  • Little, E. A. H., Harriott, O. T.,  Akaratovic, K. I., Kiser, J. P., Abadam, C. F., Shepard, J. J., and Molaei, G.* (2021). Host interactions of Aedes albopictus, an Invasive Vector of Arboviruses, in Virginia, USA. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0009173

  • Molaei, G.*, Little, E. A. H., Khalil, N., Ayres, B. N., Nicholson, W. L., and Paddock, C. D. (2021). Established Population of the Gulf Coast Tick, Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae), Infected with Rickettsia parkeri in Connecticut. Journal of Medical Entomology, 58(3). DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjaa299

  • Pokutnaya, D., Shirzadi, M. R. , Salari, E., and Molaei, G.* (2020). Cutaneous Leishmaniasis during Pregnancy, Preterm Birth, and Neonatal Death: A Case Report. Iranian Journal of Parasitology,15(4), 608–614. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/journals/1689/

  • Molaei, G.*, Mertins, J. W., and Stafford, K. C. III. (2020). Enduring Challenge of Invasive Ticks: Introduction of Amblyomma Oblongoguttatum (Acari: Ixodidae) into the United States on A Human Traveler Returning from Central America. Journal of Parasitology, 106, 670–674.

  • Stafford, K. C. III, Ridge G. E., Molaei, G., Zarb, C., and Bevilacqua, P. (2020). Rabbit Bot Fly Furuncular, Tracheopulmonary, and Human Bot Fly Infestations in Connecticut (Oestridae: Cuterebrinae). Journal of Medical Entomology. DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjaa181.

  • Molaei, G.* and Little, E. A. H. (2020). A case of morphological anomalies in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from nature. Experimental and Applied Acarology. DOI: 10.1007/s10493-020-00510-5

  • Pokutnaya, D., Molaei, G.*, Weinberger, D. M., Vossbrinck, C. R., and Diaz, A. J. (2020). Prevalence of infection and co-infection and presence of rickettsial endosymbionts in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Connecticut, USA. Journal of Parasitology, 106, 30-37. DOI: 10.1645/19-116.

  • Little, E. A. H., Williams, S. C., Stafford, K. C. III, Linske, M. A., and Molaei G.* (2019). Evaluating the effectiveness of an integrated tick management approach on multiple pathogen infection in Ixodes scapularis questing nymphs and larvae parasitizing white-footed mice. Experimental and Applied Acarology. DOI: 10.1007/s10493-019-00452-7.

  • Stafford, K. C. III, Williams, S. C., van Oosterwijk, J. G., Linske, M. A., Zatechka, S., Richer, L. M., Molaei, G., Przybyszewski, C., and Wikel, S. K. (2019). Field evaluation of a novel oral reservoirtargeted vaccine against Borrelia burgdorferi utilizing an inactivated wholecell bacterial antigen expression vehicle. Experimental and Applied Acarology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-019-00458-1

  • Molaei, G.*, Little, E. A. H, Williams, S. C., and Stafford, K. C. (2019). Bracing for the Worst - Range Expansion of the Lone Star Tick in the Northeastern United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 381, 2189-2192. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp1911661.
  • Little E. A. H. and Molaei, G.* (2019). Passive Tick Surveillance: Exploring Spatiotemporal Associations of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), Babesia microti (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) Infection in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae). Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. DOI: 10.1089/vbz.2019.2509
  • Molaei, G.*, Little, E. A. H., Stafford, K. C. III, and Gaffe, H. (2019). A Seven-Legged Tick: Report of a Morphological Anomaly in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) Biting A Human Host from the Northeastern United States. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. DOI: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2019.101304
  • Molaei, G., Karpathy, S. E., and Andreadis, T. G. (2019). First Report of The Introduction of An Exotic Tick, Amblyomma coelebs (Acari: Ixodidae), Feeding on A Human Traveler Returning to The United States from Central America. Journal of Parasitology, 105(4), 571–575. DOI: 10.1645/19-74.
  • Little, E. A. H., Anderson, J. F., Stafford, K. C. III, Eisen, L., Eisen, R. J., and Molaei, G. (2019). Predicting Spatiotemporal Patterns of Lyme disease Incidence from Passively Collected Surveillance Data for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-infected Ixodes scapularis ticks. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2019.04.010.
  • VanAcker, M. C., Little, E. A. H., Molaei, G., Bajwa, W. I., and Diuk-Wasser, M. A. (2019). Enhancement of Risk for Lyme Disease by Landscape Connectivity, New York, New York, USA. 2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases, https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/25/6/18-1741_article.
  • Soghigian, J., Andreadis, T. G., and Molaei, G. (2018). Population Genomics of Culiseta melanura, the Principal Vector of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in the United States. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006698
  • Stafford, K. C., Molaei, G., Little, E. A. H., Paddock, C. D., Karpathy, S. E., and Laborite, A. M. (2018). Distribution and Establishment of the Lone Star Tick in Connecticut and Implications for Range Expansion and Public Health. Journal of Medical Entomology; tjy115, https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjy115
  • Williams, S. C., Little, E. A. H., Stafford, K. C. III, Molaei, G., and Linske, M. A. (2018). Integrated Control of JuvenileIxodes scapularis ParasitizingPeromyscus leucopusin Residential Settings in Connecticut, United States. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, 9(5),1310-1316.
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877959X18300062 (PDF)
  • Anderson, J. F., Armstrong, P. M., Misencik, M. J., Bransfield, A. B., Andreadis, T. G., and Molaei, G. (2018). Seasonal Distribution, Blood-Feeding Habits, and Viruses of Mosquitoes in An Open-Faced Quarry in Connecticut, 2010 and 2011. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 34, 1-10. http://mosquito-jamca.org/doi/pdf/10.2987/17-6707.1 (PDF)
  • Molaei, G. and Little, E. A. H. (2018). A nine-legged tick: Report of a morphological anomaly in the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) from the northeastern United States. Tick and Tick-Borne Diseaseshttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2018.03.003.
  • Molaei, G., Andreadis, T. G., Anderson, J. F., and Stafford, K. C. III. (2018). An Exotic Hitchhiker: A Case Report of Importation into Connecticut from Africa of the Human Parasitizing Tick, Hyalomma truncatum (Acari: Ixodidae). Journal of Parasitologyhttp://www.journalofparasitology.org/doi/10.1645/18-13.
  • Williams, S. C, Stafford, K. C. III, Molaei, G., and M. A. Linske. (2017). Integrated control of Ixodes scapularis: Effectiveness of white-tailed deer reduction, the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, and fipronil-based rodent bait boxes. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. DOI: 10.1089/vbz.2017.2146 (PDF)
  • Stafford, K. C. III, Williams, S. C., and G. Molaei. (2017). Integrated Pest Management in Controlling Ticks and Tick-Associated Diseases. Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 8(1), 1–7 DOI: 10.1093/jipm/pmx018 (PDF)
  • Soghigian, J., Ridge, G., Stafford, K., and Molaei, G. (2017). The First Evidence of Nanism in Ixodes (Ixodes) scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), Found Parasitizing a Human Host. Journal of Medical Entomology, 1–5. DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjx111. (PDF)
  • Shepard, J. J., Andreadis, T. G., Thomas, M. C., and G. Molaei. (2016). Host Associations of Mosquitoes at Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Foci in Connecticut, USA. Parasites and Vectors, 9, 474. DOI 10.1186/s13071-016-1765-1 (PDF)
  • Molaei, G., Thomas, M. C., Muller, T., Medlock, J., Shepard, J. J., Arsmtrong, P. M., and Andreadis, T. G. (2016). Vector-Host Interactions in Avian Communities in Four Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Foci in the Northeastern U.S. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004347 (PDF)
  • Molaei, G., Arsmtrong, P. M., Graham, A., Kramer, L. D., and Andreadis, T. G. (2015). Insights into the Recent Emergence and Expansion of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in a New Focus in the Northern New England USA. Parasites and Vectors, 8, 516. DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-1145-2 (PDF)
  • Molaei, G., Arsmtrong, P. M., Abadam, C. F., Akaratovic, K. I., Kiser, J. P., and Andreadis, T. G.. (2015). Vector-Host Interactions of Culiseta melanura in a Focus of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in Southeastern Virginia. PLoS One: DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136743 (PDF)
  • Huang, S., Smith, D. J., Molaei, G., Andreadis, T. G., Larsen, S. E., and Lucches, E. F. (2013). Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) Infection in Aedes, Culex, and Culiseta Mosquitoes From North San Joaquin Valley, CA. Journal of Medical Entomology, 50, 1315-1323. (PDF)
  • Molaei, G., Andreadis, T. G., Arsmtrong, P. M., Thomas, M. C., Deschamps, T., Cuebas-Incle, E., Montgomery, W., Osborne, M., Smole, S., Matton, P., Andrews, W., Best, C., Cornine, F. III, Bidlack, E., and Texeira, T. (2013). Vector-host interactions and epizootiology of eastern equine encephalitis virus in Massachusetts, USA. Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases. (PDF)
  • Molaei, G., Huang, S., and Andreadis, T. G. (2012). Vector-host interactions of Culex pipiens complex in Northeastern and Southwestern USA. Journal of American Mosquito Control Association. (PDF)
  • Jennifer E. Simpson, Paul J. Hurtado, Jan Medlock, Goudarz Molaei, Theodore G. Andreadis, Alison P. Galvani, and Maria A. Diuk-Wasser. (2011). Vector host-feeding preferences drive transmission of multi-host pathogens: West Nile virus as a model system. Proceedings of The Royal Society B, Biological Sciences. (PDF)
  • Huang, S., Molaei, G., Andreadis, T. G. (2011). Reexamination of Culex pipiens hybridization zone in the eastern United States by ribosomal DNA-based single nucleotide polymorphism markers. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. (in press) 
  • Molaei, G., Cummings, R. F., Su, T., Armstrong, P. M., Williams, G. A., Cheng, M. L., Webb, J. P., Andreadis, T. G. (2010). Vector-host interactions governing epidemiology of West Nile virus in southern California. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene83, 1269-1282. (PDF)

  • Diuk-Wasser, M. A., Molaei, G., Simpson, J. E., Folsom, C. M., Armstrong, P. M., Andreadis, T. G. (2010). Avian communal roosts as amplification foci for West Nile virus in urban areas in northeastern United States. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 82, 337-343. (PDF)
  • Molaei, G. (2009). Measures urgently required to prevent multiple submissions. Nature, 461, 723. (PDF)
  • Molaei, G., Farajollahi, A., Armstrong, P. M., Oliver, J., Howard, J. J., Andreadis, T. G. (2009). Identification of blood meals in Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Anopheles punctipennis from eastern equine encephalitis virus foci in northeastern USA. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 23, 350-356.
  • Molaei, G., Farajollahi, A., Scott, J. J., Gaugler, R., Andreadis, T. G. (2009). Human blood feeding by the recently introduced mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae), and public health implications.  Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 25, 210–214. (PDF)
  • Huang, S., Hamer, G. L., Molaei, G., Walker, E. D., Goldberg, T. L., Kitron, U. D., Andreadis, T. G. (2009). Genetic variation and blood-feeding pattern of Culex pipiens, the major vector of West Nile virus. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 9, 637-642. (PDF)
  • Huang, S., Molaei, G., Andreadis, T. G. (2008). Genetic insights into the population structure of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in the northeastern united states by using microsatellite analysis.  American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 79: 518-527. (PDF)
  • Molaei, G., Andreadis, T. G., Armstrong, P. M., Diuk-Wasser, M. 2008. Host-feeding patterns of potential mosquito vectors in Connecticut, USA: molecular analysis of blood meals from twenty-three species of Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Psorophora, and Uranotaenia.  Journal of Medical Entomology 45:1143-1151. (PDF)
  • Molaei, G., Andreadis, T. G, Armstrong, P. M., Bueno, R. Jr., Dennett, J. A., Real, S. V., Sargent, C., Bala, A., Randle, Y., Guzman, H., Travassos da Rosa, A., Wuithiranyagool, T., Tesh, R. B. 2007. Host feeding pattern of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) and its role in transmission of West Nile virus in Harris County, Texas.  American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 77: 73-81. (PDF)
  • Molaei, G., Andreadis, T. G. 2006. Identification of avian- and mammalian-derived blood meals in Aedes vexans and Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) and its implication for West Nile virus transmission in Connecticut, USA.  Journal of Medical Entomology 43: 1088-1093. (PDF)
  • Molaei, G., Oliver, J., Andreadis, T. G., Armstrong, P. M., Howard, J. J. 2006. Molecular identification of blood-meal sources in Culiseta melanura and Culiseta morsitans from an endemic focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus in New York.  American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 75: 1140-1147. (PDF)
  • Molaei, G., Andreadis, T. G., Armstrong, P. M., Anderson, J. F., Vossbrinck, C. R. 2006. Host feeding patterns of Culex mosquitoes and West Nile virus transmission, Northeastern United States.  Emerging Infectious Diseases 12: 468-474. (PDF)
  • Molaei, G., Paluzzi, J. P., Bendena, W. G., Lange, A. B. 2005. Isolation, cloning, and tissue distribution of a putative octopamine/tyramine receptor gene from the African Migratory Locust, Locusta migratoria.  Archives of Insect Biochemistry and physiology 59: 132-149. (PDF)
  • Molaei, G. 2004. Genetic Markers for the Third Chromosome of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae).  J. Animal Vet. Advances 3: 758-766. 
  • Molaei, G., Lange, A. B. 2003. The association of serotonin with the alimentary canal of the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria: distribution, physiology, and pharmacological profile. Journal of Insect Physiology 49: 1073-1082. (PDF)
  • Zaim, M., Manouchehri, A. V., Motabar, M., Emadi, A. M., Nazari, M., Pakdad, K., Kayedi, M. H., Molaei, G. 1995. Anopheles culicifacies in Baluchistan. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 9: 181-186. 
  • Zaim, M., Manouchehri, A. V., Motabar, M., Molaei, G, Kayedi, M. H., Pakdad, P., Nazari, M. 1992. Ecology of Anopheles pulcherrimus in Baluchistan. Journal of American Mosquito Control Association 8: 293-296. 
  • Molaei, G., Zaim, M., Manouchehri, A. V., Motabar, M., Edrissian, G. H., Ladoni, H., Nazari, M. 1991. Biting behavior of Anopheline mosquitoes in Ghasreghand, Baluchistan. Journal of Public Health 20: 1-4.