Plant Health Problems
Diseases caused by Fungi:
Damping-off, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium sp.
This disease affects very young seedlings, but can also damage older plants. Affected seedlings will wilt and fall over at the soil line.
Seeds should be germinated in steamed soil or in a soilless potting medium.
Root and crown rot, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium sp., Fusarium sp.
Symptoms appear as wilting and a slow or rapid collapse of the plant. The roots can appear brown and water-soaked instead of white. A water-soaked lesion can often appear at the base of the stem.
Control can be achieved by using sterile soil, clean pots, and fungicide-treated seed. Diseased plants should be rogued out and discarded.
Botrytis blight, Botrytis cinerea.
Botrytis blight occurs on many different kinds of plants. The disease appears when plants are grown under conditions of high humidity. The disease appears as tan to brown spots on leaves that can be associated with a grayish mold colonizing the damaged area.
Control can be achieved by spacing plants wider apart and with the use of fungicide sprays applied as soon as symptoms are visible. Among the compounds registered for use in Connecticut is iprodione. Consult the label for dosage rates, safety precautions, and indoor use.
Diseases caused by Viruses:
Turnip mosaic virus.
This disease infects the broadleaf endive. Symptoms appear as chlorotic spots followed by mosaic patterns in the leaves and plant stunting.
The virus is transmitted by aphids so control can be achieved by the use of insecticides.
Species of aphids such as the bean aphid, pea aphid, and lettuce aphid, feed upon endive in Connecticut. See Aphid fact sheet.